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In practice, the most widespread method is high-pressure jet cleaning (hydrodynamic cleaning), which is used for exterior pressure washing of a car and units. The principle of removing contaminants using a jet consists in the mechanical destruction of the layer of contaminants, its bonds, called adhesion, with the surface to be cleaned due to normal and tangential stresses that arise when a moving liquid (water, washing solution) hits an obstacle.
Contaminants are removed if the force of impact (impact impulse) of the jet against the surface of the cleaning object exceeds at least one of the strength adhesion-cohesive characteristics of contaminants, such as compressive strength, bending, shear, adhesion force, etc. If the force of interaction of dirt particles with the surface to be cleaned is greater than the force of interaction between dirt particles, then exterior cleaning is carried out by the "drilling" method. Otherwise by the "tearing off" method.
To convert the potential energy of the liquid head into the kinetic energy of the jet, special nozzles are used. Liquid jets are formed using nozzles of various shapes and sizes. For example, nozzles with a round outlet at the outlet produce a sharp, continuous and concentrated jet that can penetrate the layer of dirt to separate them from the bottom of the surface to be cleaned and makes it possible to clean hard-to-reach places.